Theme : Suspension – Swinging On A Star

The missing link, or just missing a link. We consider the much maligned swing axle.

A Spitfire demonstrates the swing axle's graceful poise - image :
A Spitfire demonstrates the swing axle’s graceful poise – image :

The swing axle is the first stop when considering how to make the movement of two rear wheels, previously attached to a solid axle, independent of each other. Simply pivot the shafts either side of the differential and have the two wheels bounce up and down, describing an arc around their respective pivot points. It’s a basic system with many shortcomings but, bearing in mind it dates back to the early days of the motor car, when it was patented by Edmund Rumpler in 1903, that is understandable.

It was also used on aircraft and, where high speeds on land only occur in a straight line, this was a fair system but, on a car, it was basically flawed. I actually viewed its errant behaviour close-up in my teens. Street racing with a friend (I’m not proud, but I was young and those were different days, etc …) both driving family cars, I followed his VW Beetle through a tight right hand corner and watched its left wheel tuck underneath the car, causing it to slide up on the kerb, buckling the wheel, breaking the driveshaft and, if not actually curing me totally of such hoonish behaviour, persuading me at least to keep it free of a competitive basis.

The shameless Beetle flaunts its shortcomings.

But, by then, I was already well aware of the shortcomings of the swing axle, ever since my Dad had returned from a trip to the US in 1966 with, in addition to the customary gift of motoring and hot rod mags, a copy of Ralph Nader’s Unsafe At Any Speed. The relevant section of this book centred on a particular villain, the first generation 1959 Chevrolet Corvair. In concept an admirable car that offered advanced solutions and elegant styling in a compact body, a stark contrast to Harley Earl’s chromey bloaters, it was lethally compromised by a mixture of management ignorance and cynicism at GM.

The bean counters are cutting corners, so that you won't dare to - image :
The bean counters are cutting corners, so that you won’t dare to – image :

The cars that inspired the Corvair were small European, lightweight, rear-engined saloons, notably the VW Beetle and Renault Dauphine. Both fitted with swing axles, these cars were known for their handling vices when pushed, with lurid oversteer being available to the careless. Sticking a 2.3 litre flat six in the tail didn’t really improve this trait and, although Chevrolet’s engineers were aware of problems, they were frustrated by cost-conscious management in their attempts to improve matters. Simple diagrams and graphic accident descriptions in the Nader book showed what happened when this cheap and cheerless suspension set-up was pushed beyond its, usually quite low, limits.

Diagram from Unsafe At Any Speed
Diagram from Unsafe At Any Speed

Specifically the handling characteristics were very susceptible to changes in tyre pressure. To ensure more controllable understeer, the front tyres would normally be set at considerably lower pressure that the rear ones. In the case of the Corvair it was 15psi front and 26psi rear, this differential being chosen late in the car’s development and taking it outside the tyre manufacturer’s recommendations. The car’s behaviour then relied on the owner’s scrupulous monitoring of tyre pressures and their smooth driving style. Naturally many accidents occurred and GM fully deserved the shit that fell on their corporate heads, but less deserving of that was the 1965 Series 2 Corvair, actually a good and good-looking car with a decent fully independent rear end, but one that both GM and its customers had lost enthusiasm for.

Rumpler Tropfenwagen - image :
Rumpler Tropfenwagen – image :

But, if the swing axle was fatally discredited by the Corvair scandal, the Chevrolet’s rear end already had a multitude of less notorious cousins. Rumpler had produced his own car using his swing axle in 1921. The Tropfenwagen was a clever and advanced vehicle for its time but, like many admirable yet unconventional cars, it wasn’t a commercial success. In 1923, Benz engineers used Rumpler’s chassis design on their own 1923 Tropfenwagen, a mid-engined racer. Hans Ledwinka adopted swing axles for his 1923 T11 saloon car and subsequent Tatras and, in fact, today’s Tatra trucks still use swing axles. Whether Ferdinand Porsche’s Beetle was the result of plagiarism, or was just heavily influenced by Ledwinka’s Tatra V570, it certainly adopted that car’s swing axles, though Porsche had already used them in his terrifyingly glorious Auto Union Grand Prix cars, themselves heavily influenced by the Benz Tropfenwagen.

Auto Union Type C planetdiecast-com
Danger : Supermen At Work. Auto Union Type C – image :

By the 50s and 60s, the swing axle was the independent system of choice for the German industry, being found on VWs, Porsches, NSUs, Borgwards and Mercedes. You also found it elsewhere, in the Renault Dauphine, the Triumph Herald and Fiat 600 to name but a handful.

Of all these, bearing in mind the manufacturer’s justified reputation for safety and innovation, it’s surprising to note that Mercedes were one of the swing axle’s longest running and final adherents. After the Tropfenwagen, the swing axle then took seed at Daimler-Benz, appearing in a variety of production cars and racers. For the 300 SL, often called the first supercar (though Alfa’s 8C 2900 is surely equally deserving), Mercedes introduced a raft of innovations, yet remained faithful to the swing axle when a De Dion set-up, of which they had experience, or even just a well-located live axle would have been a wiser choice. As such, glorious though it is, the Gullwing has a deserved reputation for being very unforgiving on the limit. After this, aloof yet diligent as ever, Mercedes improved the behaviour of their swing axle considerably by producing a rather inelegant looking but effective design which made the pivot radius as large as possible, with a single low pivot point for the right shaft and the diff twisting in parcel with the left shaft .

Clumsy looking but effective. Mercedes single pivot point swing axle.
Clumsy looking but effective. Mercedes single pivot point swing axle.

Later, a horizontal compensating spring was introduced and, by time of its last appearance in the large W108 saloons of the mid Sixties, although it could be argued that the design could not now claim to be truly independent since some forces must be transmitted from one side to the other, the suspension’s nastier characteristics were more or less expunged, so much so that it could even be used on the magnificent 300 SEL 6.3 up until 1972.

Mercedes 300SEL 6.3
AMG prepared Mercedes 300SEL 6.3

But that is no reason to mourn the swing axle’s demise, though if you do require more graphic illustration of its general viciousness, particularly when combined with a rear engine, do view this.

13 thoughts on “Theme : Suspension – Swinging On A Star”

  1. I remember reading that the swing axle was more suited to the more extreme camber of central European roads.

    1. Mark. I can understand the theory behind that, but ultimately only if it’s a single track road. It sounds more like one of those semi-bogus ‘advantages’ dreamed up by a desperate PR department in the wake of the Corvair storm.

  2. Thanks for that! It’s the Triumph Herald that I associate with swing axles. The GM story is archetypal corporate short-sightedness. Where did those executives go to to college? What kind of parents did they have to make them turn out so morally misdirected?

    1. If 3 to 5 percent of the general population are sociopaths, then maybe the motor industry just attracts a disproportionate number. Actually, I can almost imagine decent family men at GM convincing themselves that everyone checks their tyre pressures and that no-one drives that fast. But taking it up a notch, balancing the cost of compensation damages against the cost of fixing the Ford Pinto’s fuel tank and choosing the cheaper, compensation path is beyond my understanding.

      Actually, I’ve just been to see the exhibition “Jheronimus Bosch – Visions of a Genius”. I wish I had Bosch’s faith that somewhere, down there, a bunch of motor industry executives were getting what they deserved.

    2. Maybe they went to the same schools as these guys: where they teach you to save money by putting crash parts only on the driver side.

      (Mercedes did the same thing with the 2013 E-class mid cycle refresh)

      Or maybe they went to school with these guys: where they taught to only put the crash parts on the pickup truck model you think will be tested.

      Or maybe their parents taught them how to cheat on diesel emissions tests.

      Or maybe how to cheat on gasoline turbo fuel economy tests.

  3. Sydney Allard tried it out in the other end of the car!

    A quick search for contemporary descriptions of the handling produced words like diabolical, terrifying and frightful.

    1. Ah yes. The notorious Ballamy IRS, made from sawing a beam axle in half and pivoting it. As a teenager I planned converting an upright and knackered Ford Prefect that I’d inherited into a Lotus 7 type special. This would have included the Ford special builders favourite of converting it to Ballamy type swing axle front suspension. Fortunately other distractions prevented me, or I might not be writing this. Tim Fry and Mike Parkes use a more sophisticated swing axle front suspension on the Hillman Imp, but they were both clever engineers and that worked well. And the Imp didn’t have a heavy V8 engine in its nose either.

  4. On the Imp matter, the Henshaws’ book reports that front MacPherson struts were seriously considered in the late stages of development. The main driver for the change was the potential for increasing luggage space.

    A car was fitted with struts of unstated origin, and arrangements were made to present it to Rootes management for testing at Wellesbourne airfield.

    I’ll quote the rest – I love this story:

    “…several people drove the car, the general consensus being quite favourable; management had decided that the car was an improvement on the ordinary Imp. There was only one voice of dissension, one driver who felt that the car was no different from any other. In the event he was proven to be correct; it was an ordinary Imp – someone had brought the wrong car!”

  5. Had the Chevrolet Corvair featured anti-roll bars from the outset, which car/s would have been the main subject in an alternate Unsafe at Any Speed and depending on the manufacturers position at the time would it have been enough to potentially drive some of them bankrupt?

    As for the Hillman Imp receiving front MacPherson struts, could such a setup have been made to work or was it a blind alley given the interesting characteristics it gave on one Imp?

  6. Swing axe’s didn’t end with the rear…a certain well known firm “found on road dead” uses them even now on the front of their trucks.

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