Clever innovation from the smaller American automakers.
With pockets much less deep than those of the US ‘Big Three’ automakers, independent American manufacturers needed to be clever and creative to come up with new cars in response to an expanding market as the 1960s dawned. Studebaker’s solution was to use the mid-section of its existing full-size sedan that dated back to 1953 as a base, while American Motors resurrected a model, albeit with several updates applied to it, that it had discontinued years earlier.
One notable advantage of this forced strategy was that it enabled both companies to beat GM, Ford and Chrysler (all of whom were developing compacts that were all-new from the ground up) to the punch with the introduction of what were, at least by US standards, compact cars. The Studebaker Lark and AMC Rambler American had the compact field more or less to themselves for a couple of seasons, but one of them would soon run out of steam, sales-wise after the Ford Falcon, Chevrolet Corvair, Plymouth Valiant and others appeared.
By the end of the fifties, the rise in popularity of foreign small cars in America was impossible to ignore: led by the Volkswagen Beetle, other manufacturers such as Fiat, Simca, Volvo and Renault were making their presence felt in the marketplace. American Motors Corporation noticed the trend and had already fielded a small car in the form of the Metropolitan, but that was only a two-seater, which severely limited its chances against the opposition.
Clearly, something slightly larger was needed, but American Motors lacked the necessary resources as the 1954 merger with Nash and Hudson had not produced the envisioned financial returns. Sales of Nash and Hudson models under American Motors control were so disappointing that both makes would be consigned to history after 1957. The new and larger Rambler introduced in 1956 found more customers, but that was not enough to prevent American Motors from posting a financial loss for the following year. In short, there was very little money available to add a compact car to the model range, and certainly not enough to finance the development of a totally new vehicle.
It was then that executive Roy D. Chapin and chairman George Romney realised that they already had a compact car with the right dimensions: the old Nash Rambler had a 100 inch (254cm) wheelbase and room for four. Built between 1950 and 1955, all its tooling was still in American Motors’ possession.
Obviously, it would not do simply to reintroduce the car in its last known iteration, so chief stylist Edmund Anderson was tasked with updating the car as much as possible within very tight budget constraints. Anderson opened up the formerly enclosed wheel-wells, lengthened the rear wings slightly and deleted the fake scoop on the bonnet. These changes were quite effective in altering the car’s appearance, yet did not necessitate making entirely new and expensive dies for the presses.
A slightly flatter roof panel lowered the car’s profile, and a larger rear window offered better visibility and modernised the look at the same time. Some other minor sheet-metal changes, altered trim pieces and a more delicate grille completed the transformation. The old Rambler’s tail lights were cleverly re-used by simply mounting them upside down, thereby creating a different look at no extra cost.
The proven cast-iron ‘L-head’ inline side-valve 195.6 cubic-inch (3.2-litre) six-cylinder with 90hp provided the motive force through a three-speed manual gearbox. A three-speed ‘Flash-O-Matic’ automatic transmission made by Borg-Warner was available as an option.
The name of the ‘new’ car, Rambler American, appealed to patriotic sentiments and was a obvious jab at the foreign imports. Introduced in January 1958 and available in just one two-door sedan bodystyle and two trim levels, DeLuxe and Super, the Rambler American was the lowest priced new car in America at USD $1,789. (Considering its name, $1,776 would have been a more fitting price-tag, but American Motors apparently could not afford such fripperies.) A new 1958 Ford or Chevrolet did not leave the showroom for less than around US $2,100, so the Rambler American represented excellent value.
No doubt spurred by a sudden economic recession at the end of 1957, over 30,000 people purchased a Rambler American during the 1958 model year, a good result considering its late(1) introduction and more than double the break-even number calculated by the product planners. American Motors was the only domestic carmaker to increase its sales in this model year and made a profit for the first time since its inception.
A two-door station wagon joined the otherwise virtually unchanged American line-up the next year. The buying public had by now discovered the excellent value the Rambler American represented, resulting in sales of 91,491 cars in the 1959 model year. The new station wagon proved quite popular as it was responsible for 36% of that sales number.
A new top-line trim level, Custom, was added for 1960, as was a four-door sedan. Redesigned door hinges now allowed a larger opening angle (from 55o to 75o). The fuel reservoir capacity was increased and power steering became available as an option. The introduction of the Chevrolet Corvair, Ford Falcon and Plymouth Valiant did not have an adverse effect on American sales: on the contrary, slightly over 120,000 were sold over the 1960 model year. The newly introduced four-door variant proved to be a good idea as it outsold the two-door version.
It was time for a restyling in 1961 and, although the upper portion of the body still gave its origins away and the end result was somewhat plain and boxy, it was an effective update, again done by Edmund Anderson. A four-door station wagon as well as a convertible were newly available. The facelifted version was five inches shorter and three inches narrower than its predecessor, but offered the same amount of passenger room; the public responded favourably to the new American and just over 136,000 found new owners. The next two years saw only small alterations, although within the leadership structure of the company there was change as George Romney left to become Governor of Michigan. He was succeeded by an ex-Packard man, Roy Abernathy. Sales numbers trended downward during these years but were still healthy enough, hovering around the 100,000 mark.
Richard A. (Dick) Teague was responsible for the next and what would prove to be last major facelift of the Rambler American; he transformed the car into a clean and pleasingly styled vehicle. The wheelbase was increased to 106 inches and the curved side glass was a first in its class. More than 163,000 were sold in 1964 but from there on the American -as well as its parent company- started to fade away, slowly but surely. Still, as with the preceding model, American Motors managed to shift around 100,000 Americans annually (except for 1967 when less than 63,000 were sold) which was still a respectable performance.
The American would survive until 1969, receiving minor styling changes along the way. A noteworthy farewell gift of sorts was the 1969 SC/Rambler-Hurst which was, with its 315hp 390 cubic-inch (6.4-litre) V8, a nippy car indeed. A total of 1,512 were ordered, more than three times the amount that American Motors had planned to produce.
Starting in the mid-sixties, American Motors had begun increasingly to de-emphasize the Rambler name and the 1969 cars were the last on which it was used. In hindsight, it is questionable whether this was a wise decision: the Rambler name enjoyed widespread public recognition and was generally associated with economy, value and good quality. In the oil-crisis stricken seventies, the Rambler badge might have been a better fit than AMC to answer the challenges to be met- but such is life.
In Part Two of this series, we will examine the rise and fall of the Studebaker Lark.
(1) US models for a particular model year usually become available in the third quarter of the previous year.
11 thoughts on “Independent Diptych (Part One)”
Good morning Bruno. Another fascinating ‘hidden history’ unearthed, thank you. You have to admire the resourcefulness of the smaller US automakers, which allowed them to compete with the US ‘Big Three’ with only a tiny fraction of the development budget.
The final Ramblers hide their ancient origins very well and look perfectly contemporary for the late 1960s:
I’ll have the hardtop coupé in period metallic bronze with a vinyl roof and Rostyle wheels, please:
They weren’t *that* ancient, the ’64 (along with the ’63 “senior” Ramblers) was a total clean-sheet redesign.
Hi Daniel, Those are Magnum 500 wheels.
Thanks, gooddog. 🙂
Good morning, Bruno. Thank you for this wonderful article. I agree with Daniel in my admiration on the resourcefulness of American Motors.
I’ve been browsing to my photos for a long while now trying to find a photo of a ’58 Rambler American Stationwagon that lives close to my moms house. Can’t find it, so an add of the car will have to do. It’s quite different from the later models.
The Rambler Super was not in the Nash Rambler > Rambler American lineage; it was a larger series in the Rambler line.
You are of course correct, Pete.
The Metropolitan was essentially a SWB A40 Cambridge with the approximate length of a Morris Minor and allegedly some componentry from the A30, Nash later AMC would have probably done better had the Metropolitan featured the same wheelbase as the Cambridge. Contrast the Metropolitan (and even the Austin A40 Farina) with Nissan’s own 110 to 310 Bluebird, the 210 and 310 Bluebirds being notable for selling well in the United States and establishing a reputation for reliability.
It is funny how the Lark’s obsolete design were said to be older than the Checker Taxi, though it would have apparently made for a suitable a Jeep rival derived from the Studebaker Champ.
Based on Nash and AMC’s success with the Rambler and Rambler American, one can only wonder how Studebaker-Packard would have fared had Romney been able to convince them of an alliance instead of a full merger or at least a short-term alliance where the Lark ends up being based on the Rambler American platform yet with different styling (like the IKA Torino) with other Studebaker-Packard models following suit.
The original 1950 Nash Rambler’s skirted front wheels meant it needed to be much wider overall than it was, so that there was room for the wheel cut. One artifact of this was how deeply set into the fenders the 1955 and 1958-60 American’s wheels were once it was opened up; another is that when this excess width was trimmed away in the ’61 reskin the result was a full 3″ narrower overall with unchanged track and seat width which must be some kind of record for anything short of a full redesign.
There’s an interesting story in Graham Robson’s Standard Motor Company book about a proposal to use the 61MY Rambler American body for a Standard Vanguard replacement, assembled in Coventry with the British company’s engines, transmissions and axles.
Unexpectedly, the initiative came from AMC, although Standard-Triumph might have been a greater beneficiary, as they were on the verge of bankruptcy, and could not afford to progress with tooling of their own very advanced ‘Zebu’ design, intended to replace the Vanguard and Ensign. One ‘Vangler’ or possibly ‘Ramguard’ using the 20S engine was built, but disappeared without trace.
Even if the idea was at some point seriously considered, it was abandoned when the takeover of Standard-Triumph by Leyland Motors was agreed in November 1960.
Robertas: Thank you for this information, I did not know about that!